Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic diseases in the mouth. It involves the gums and the underlying bone. The bacteria in the dental plaque and their by products cause damage to the gums and bone. This infection under the gums with time can lead to severe disease and damage.
The result of this destruction is bone loss and loss of attachment of the gums to the teeth. The gums become loose, puffy, red and easily bleed. If your gums bleed easily with brushing it could be a sign of periodontal disease. Sometimes you can see brown or black spots on the teeth or under the gum line. This is called calculus.